The biggest culprit on raspberry pi's is the disk io speed. This is due to the fact that the ethernet card and usb ports share bandwidth so if you're writing to a usb drive while accepting traffic over ethernet, performance is limited and the built in micro sd card slot has very slow data transfer rates.
Here's a page with some tips for how to improve it https://github.com/nextcloud/nextcloudpi/wiki/Why-is-my-Pi-so-slow%3F
Thank you, I've done all I can from that list.
I am more interested in a more specific test: how do I understand if the problem is my internet connection (which would not be fixed by using more powerful hardware) or the Raspi? Do you have any idea?
If you access your nextcloud instance using the local ip from inside your home network and then compare that to using an outside network that will tell you whether the bottleneck is the network or the rpi.
Typically what I do is I see how long the page takes to load when my phone is on the local wifi, then I turn off wifi and see if it's perceptually longer over cellular. You want to use private browsing though so that you don't use your browser's cache.
I didn't think about the cache issue, that's a good point.
The results of iostat show that the microSD I'm using is more than adequate.
I haven't tried with the other tools, but I suspect that the bottleneck is combination of cpu, memory and bandwidth (in this order).
I'm considering buying an intel NUC, since I want to self host as much as I can. Thank you again!
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